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Golf
Golf
Golf is deceptively simple and endlessly complicated. It satisfies the soul and frustrates the intellect. It is at the same time rewarding and maddening. It is without a doubt the greatest game mankind has ever invented. (3)
Through the years of golf mankind has created a way to look at the game of golf in a more scientific way.
Golf has been around for ages. Many famous kings have played golf. Energy is the key source that makes a golf swing work. Precision is a main key factor in a good golf swing. The golf clubs have many different lofts and are used for many different occasions. The club head plays another big role in the golf shot and the distance the ball travels. Swing power is the most wanted thing in the game of golf besides a good game score. The swing is a small series of explosions. Body movement is the most important thing in the game. Legs are directly related accuracy and distance. The torso is the second most important thing in the golf swing.

The history of golf
Golf has been around for ages. Golf was started in Scotland around the 15th century. During the mid 15th century Scotland was about to go to war with England. So the king banned the game of golf from the country because it would interfere with archery practice. This in turn would affect the outcome of war. Then King James IV started to play the game.
This event caused major increase the popularity of the game. Around the 19th century golf went international. The first golf club outside of Scotland was India. Then the game becomes a professional game. In 1900 the game was made an Olympic sport.
The ball used to be made out of goose feathers tightly packed into a cow hide sphere. Then came the gutties in 1800, they were made out of the sap of the guttie tree, it was heated and shaped which made it easy to fix. In 1898 the one piece golf core was created and was proved effective in the British and US open.
The first golf club was created in Scotland around 1502. The first club set was sold to the king of Scotland. Club heads were made from hard wood like beech, holly, pear and, apple trees. In 1826 clubs were made from hickory imported from America. In 1900, club heads were made by iron.
The physics of the golf swing
Many people do not think of how much energy goes in to one swing, and the precision needed to have a perfect shot. Thousands of small muscles in a golf swing that takes less the half a second for a golf swing. All of these muscle movements are motor memory and required to perform in perfect sequence with perfect timing.
The club head angle determines the distance the ball will go and the height of the shot. The longer the club the farther the shot will go. The higher the club angles the higher the shot. There are two factors when selecting a golfing diver: Swing speed and angle of attack. A golfer with a higher swing speed the lower the Figure [ 1 ] this is a graph of the standard club loft
loft of a driver that golfer would want. Here is a chart of all the standard angles a golfer would want. A golfer’s angle of attack determines the loft the golfer would want. If a golfer comes in to contact with the golf ball coming up the less of the loft the golfer would need, but if the golfer was coming down on the ball the golfer would need more of a loft in the club head.
The club head speed also affects the loft angle a golfer would need to pick also in relation to an angle of impact. A golfer’s swing speed that was greater, the less of a club loft a golfer would need.
Club head speed has so much effect on the distance of the shot. If a golfer takes a driver and swings it and the club head speed is 110mph it will go 220 yards, but if the club head speed is 109mph and the exact same swing it might only go 200 yards. So the club head speed has a major effect in the distance the ball travels.
Club head speed is not the same as swing speed. The shaft flexibility will increase the club head speed by at least 10mph.
Swing power is the most coveted thing in the science of golf. One golfer is not famous by winning but by being able to hit the ball a far distance. This golfer is John Daly. To understand the concept of golf swing power a golfer must understand muscle power. Muscle power is the rate of energy expanded. It also depends on the available amount of energy and the time it has taken it to expand.
Figure [ 2 ] this figure is a frame by frame of a golf swing in action
The golf swing involves each body lever in the body. Also a golf swing generates about two horse power (32lbs). Most of the power comes from the legs, buttock, back and abdomen.
Body movement in the golf swing
Body movement is the most important part of the golf swing. If a golfer does not move their body, the club goes nowhere. There is no power if golfer just moves the arms. The legs are one of the most powerful set of muscles in the body. The legs also have the biggest bone the femur. To have a perfect swing a golfer needs to get the legs moving and they are more important the upper body. The one group of muscles in the legs that make a golf swing the way it is is the hamstrings (3 different muscles). They move in a very complex way, and provide the golfer with the correct swing, create club head speed, and move the club to the correct position. They have to be loose to be able to do all of that. If they tighten up that means that a golfer is tired and the muscles have ran out of gas in their tank.
Legs are directly related to power and accuracy. If they do not form a sturdy base the golf swing will not be able to be a good hit. Where the legs are put in relation to the ball makes a big difference. The legs (depending on golfer) when in the proper stance will make a perfect swing if the rest of the body is correct. The legs and shoulders should be in perfect sync for a perfect swing.

Figure [ 3 ]this is an example of the backswing of the golf swing.
The torso is the most important part of the body during a golf swing much more than the legs or arms but still very important. It is what drives the upper arms that propel the golf ball. It is the key joint in the golf swing. It is the part of the body that whips the arms around so they come in contact with the ball. Most of the golf swing happens in the lower back.

The golf grips
A golfer cannot move the golf club properly unless a golfer has the correct grip. A proper grip will help reduce slice and keep the club head square. There are three types of grips a golfer can use. There is the overlapping grip, the interlocking grip, and the ten finger grip. In the overlapping grip, the pinky finger of the lower hand (left hand for right handed golfers) is placed over the index finger of the upper hand. This grip is the most common grip in professional golfers.
Figure [ 4 ] this is an example of the interlocking grip
The second grip a golfer can use is the interlocking grip. The interlocking grip twines the pinky and index finger. This grip is very popular in the LPGA (ladies professional golf association). Famous players such as Jack Nickolas and Tiger Woods use this grip and look where it got them, Millions of dollars and a career.
The last grip is the ten finger grip or the baseball grip. In this grip a golfer will place his hands around the grip and not interlock with the other hand. The two hands should be close together as possible without crowding them together.

Golf fitness to improve game
Figure [ 5 ] this is the tennis exercise with a medicine ball
A golfer really does not have to be physically fit to play golf, but it would improve the golfer’s game a lot. All sections of the body are involved when a golfer swings a golf club. So a golfer needs to work out all of the muscles in the upper body. Some upper body exercises include: tennis, back toss, standing throw, and slam down.
The core is the most important part of the golf swing. So a golfer might just want to exercise those muscles a lot. Some of these exercises include seated MB twist, MB golf swing, lunge pass, Swiss ball and much more.
The legs are what create the explosive power in a golf swing. That is just another area a golfer might want to think about when exercising.
Injuries due to golf
Injuries are the biggest thing golfers worry about when playing golf. Fifty percent of professional golfers end their career because of injuries. The motion of the golf swing, if done incorrectly can seriously damage the lower back and elbows. The most common injuries are in lower back.
Figure [ 6 ] this is where a injury to the back is most likely to happen.
Injuries to the back are not only caused by swinging incorrectly but also by carrying a golf bag for too long. Swinging incorrectly is the most common cause for injuring the back. During a swing if a golfer over extends or over rotates, it can injure their back, also while a golfer is bending over while putting can injure a back for an extensive amount of time. Bending over causes too much stress on the back and that can cause a golfer to lose in a tournament. For the average weekend golfer a weekend tournament will be to tiring and stress full on the golfers back. Another reason the back injuries happen is that the club head is moving one-hundred to one-hundred and twenty miles an hour and then stopping in less the a quarter second.
The second most common injury is the elbow. The elbow in pin due to inflamed tendons that connect the forearm to the elbow. This is caused by improper swings. Another reason for golfer’s elbow is hitting the ground first. The last reason is simply injured by over use.
Figure [ 7 ] this is where a wrist injury happens
The third most common golfing injury is the wrist. Most injuries due to golf are tendinitis. Tendinitis is inflamed tendons in the wrist. It can be caused by overuse and poor swing mechanics. Golfers can also break their wrist by hitting the ball “fat” or hitting the ground before the ball during cold weather.
Some ways to prevent these injuries are to watch the way the swing and how much time a golfer spends practicing, also how many times golfers play golf in one day. Another way to prevent these injuries is to strengthen these muscles the get inflamed. Another way to prevent these injuries is to get new equipment; new equipment can help by have the club fitted for the golfer. The last way to prevent these injuries is to slow down the back swing so that the swing can be a more controlled. A golf injury is the biggest reason for professional golfer’s retirement. So always make sure that the muscles are not being over used. So staying healthy can improve the game and help prevent injuries.
The future of golf
Figure [ 8 ] this could be you controlling the robots that play golf
The future of golf is very debatable. The clubs we use now are a very close to resemblance to the clubs that our grandparents used. But the club that our grandchildren may use may look very different. Also the clubs in their bag may be completely different.
Figure [ 9 ] this is an example of a future driver
The drivers that we use are made of titanium, with a 45-inch graphite shaft. But in the future they still might be made out of titanium but in an hour glass shape and have the maximum amount of trampoline effect. That is the amount of spring in the head.
Most Fairway woods today have small steel heads. The ones in the future may have a club face design that the ball will travel like a drive shot. They will also have the same club head design.
Hybrids today narrow from front to back launch shot very low and less spin than a wood. In the future a golfer would be able to open the back of the club and be able to make adjustments like weight and the loft.
Irons and wedges today have heads like the hade 50 years ago. They have a cavity in the back, to offer different levels of feel. In the future the irons will be made in light weight material, And different clubs for different lies and grasses.
Balls in the future will have swirls or grooves that will enhance spin giving a golfer extra yards.

The putter will have only two changes and that is it will make the ball have a forward spin no matter where the ball is hit on the club face. The other change is that it will have a laser to help guide the ball.
Figure [ 10 ] this is a putter with a laser to guide a golfer's shot

Also in the future a golfer can expect to see many different types of gadgets. One gadget is that is going to be involved in the electronic golf course with a big screen to show where the shot went based from a shot a golfer took on a special electronic golf tee.
Conclusion
Figure [ 11 ] this is an electronic swing calculator
The reason I wrote this paper is to inform the reader about the physics of golf, golfing grips, golfing injuries and much more. I also wrote this paper so I could learn more about the swing and the physics, body movements. Also injuries that occur in the game of golf is in my paper
In my opinion this paper has helped me with my golf game so if were up to me I would read this paper over and over until you have memorize the entire thing but that is just my opinion.
So if you want to learn more about the science of golf I would suggest looking up the topic and reading more from the book NEWTON ON THE TEE A GREAT WALK THROUGH THE SCIENCE OF GOLF. This book has helped me a lot for my project so go out and check out the book.

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